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Consultancy Profile

Longley Consulting provides professional services in:

Professional Profile: David Longley

Born in 1954, and educated (1966-1973) at King Williams College, Isle of Man, David then went on to Leeds University where he graduated in 1979 with a First Class Honours BSc degree in Psychology. He then spent four years at the Medical Research Council's National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Division of Neurophysiology & Neuropharmacology, in North London, where he did postgraduate brain and behavioural research on the neurochemical (monoamine & opioid peptide) CNS pathways understood to be crucial to "motivation, emotion and learning". The research focussed on neophobia. This was supervised by research psychiatrists Dr Tim Crow & Dr Bill Deakin. An abstract of the work was published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in April 1981. Between 1984 and 1996 he worked as a psychologist for the English Prison Service, mainly in Whitehall SW1P. He was promoted to Senior Psychologist in 1986 and was merit promoted to Principal Psychologist in 1991 for his work on PROBE (PROfiling BEhaviour).
His service history was spent working on the implementation of policy recommendations originally made in the 1984 CRC Report on improvements in "control". This ranged from developing Evidence-Based Management Information Systems to facilitate the identification of difficult inmates ("Control Problems") for Special Units, to more general population and individual profiling, Sentence Management and Planning. This research and development work brought Information Technology, Behaviour Decision Theory and Behaviour Analysis to bear on the recording/profiling of custodial behaviour in support of more effective, and more accountable, offender management.

From 1990 on, the emphasis of his work shifted from basic monitoring and PROfiling BEhaviour towards the development of actuarial systems which might be used to facilitate behaviour change through PROgramming BEhaviour (inmate programmes). This was to be via "Apposite Allocation", namely, shaping emitted, genetically expressed rates of Operant Behaviour in more rewarding directions for both offenders and others. The work focused on the measurement and management of attendance and attainment (as performance) across all forms of regime activity as the basis for negotiating and contracting individual sentence plans with offenders. Offenders are frequently classed under DSM-IV as "Axis II Cluster B Personality Disordered". This is possibly incorrigible, genetic/CNS mediated, arrested development of egocentric/allocentric spatial relations, differentiated from other Axis II Cluster B "Personality Disorders" by persistent rule-breaking and narcissism. However, such behaviour may be, and often is Naturally Selected/shaped in less destructive directions via natural "Apposite Allocation" in the community. The simple actuarial premise therefore, was that those offenders showing an increase in pro-social self-management of their behaviours whilst in custody, should, (ageing aside), continue to emit less anti-social behaviours relative to those with records of lower frequencies of regime cooperation whilst in custody. Pilot studies of various aspects of the project were undertaken from 1992 onwards at various prisons. On the basis of evidence, it was argued that this approach was more likely to be successful than "Cognitive Skills" programmes.

Academic and Training Responsibilities

Since the beginning of the PROBE project in 1986, and especially since 1988 when the Home Office and Birkbeck College London began running the country's first Forensic Psychology MSc for Home Office Prison Psychologists, David contributed substantially towards the technical training of the vast majority of field and HQ Psychologists. As well as tutoring on the Psychologists' MSc module Computing and Statistics from 1987, he provided extensive technical and professional support to staff undertaking research and analysis projects in the field. Drawing on his medical research background, he invested considerable effort in redesigning the MSc Computing and Statistics course for 1993, emphasising the focus on Uncertainty Management & Evidence Based/Driven Practice. He was sole tutor for 1993 and 1994. From the time of the creation of the Head of Inmate Activities post, he contributed regularly to the HIA training course at HQ. From 1987 to 1994 he developed and managed the PROBE system, providing training and support to all field and HQ Psychologists and Psychological Assistants. From 1988 onwards, he presented numerous papers at professional and internal meetings such as the Division of Criminological and Legal Psychology of the British Psychological Society (1990, 1992) and at Psychologists' Conferences. These presentations focused on the use of Information Systems in support of inmate Behaviour Management throughout sentence (Sentence Management). Since 1996 he has undertaken extensive data-based research on the background to Offending Behaviour at the population level, mainly through research on educational attainment (Key Stage maths, English and science as proxies for spatial, verbal and non-verbal IQ), demographic trends as a function of differential fertility, dysgenics and changes in mean group (sex and ethnicity as gene-barriers) "intelligence". The work post 2005 was undertaken in conjunction with Richard Lynn. A joint authored paper was published in the journal "Intelligence" in 2006.
HQ Policy Steering Group Contributions

Dispersal Prison Support Group (1985-1987)
Category A Sentence Planning Group (1989-92)
National F2054 Sentence Planning Group (1991-93)
National Sentence Management Steering Group (1992-93)

Papers Available for Download:

Naloxone and Neophobia (abstract 1981)(Naloxone.mht)
Identifying Control-Problem Prisoners in Dispersal Prisons (1986)
(.pdf. file)
Programmes & Sentence Planning for Category A Inmates (1990)
(.pdf file)
What Are Regimes? (1991-2) with Sentence Management & Sentence Planning
(.pdf file)
Newbold Revel Seminar March 2-4 1992: The Foundations of Offender Management
(.pdf file)
What Works & What Can be Effectively Managed: A Close Look at the Data (1997a)
(.pdf. file)
A Further Comment on Recent Claims in the 'Rehabilitation of Rehabilitation Literature..(1997b)
(.pdf. file)
Fragments of Behaviour: The Extensional Stance HTML (1997c)
Fragments of Behaviour: The Extensional Stance - Background to Sentence Management(1997)
(.pdf file)

External Lynn, R. and Longley, D. (2006). "On the high intelligence and cognitive achievements of Jews in Britain." Intelligence, 34, 541547"